Raloxifene

Raloxifene belongs to the class of compounds known as SERMs or selective estrogen receptor modulators. SERMs decrease activity of estrogen and are therefore considered an “anti-estrogen” treatment. However, SERMs do not act by decreasing serum estrogen or aromatase-mediated conversion, but rather through a blocking activity at the estrogen receptor on a cellular level. In other words, raloxifene and its metabolites are active at the estrogen receptor but not as an estrogen-like stimulus (agonist). Instead, they prevent estrogen from exerting its effects at the cellular level. This (as well as other means of blocking estrogenic activity or reducing estrogen levels) creates a rise in testosterone in men because testosterone production is modulated partially via serum estrogen levels.

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Description

Introduction

Raloxifene, a nonsteroidal benzothiophene, is a second-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is an antiresorptive agent. Raloxifene is a non-hormonal agent that binds to the estrogen receptor and results in estrogen agonist effects on bone and the cardiovascular system and estrogen antagonist effects on endometrial and breast tissue. Raloxifene has diverse pharmacodynamic properties due to its differential interactions with the estrogen receptor and tissue selectivity.

Raloxifene and its sister drug tamoxifen are typically used in treating estrogen-receptor dependent breast cancer in women[1].
Raloxifene may prove to have more diverse uses than tamoxifen for several reasons.

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How it works?

Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) or estrogen agonists/antagonists have shown promise in osteoporosis in that they have the potential to reduce the risk of fracture, and also reduce the risk of breast cancer. SERMs maybe classified according to their core structure, which is typically a variation of the 17 beta-estradiol template and subclassified according to the side chain at the helix 12 affector region. The best known are the triphenylethylenes such as tamoxifen, used in the management of breast cancer. However, the clinical application of this class of SERMs has been limited due to endometrial stimulation. A second class is the benzothiophenes such as raloxifene and arzoxifene, which have skeletal benefit with little, if any, uterine stimulation.

In a study conducted by Christodoulakis et al, “raloxifene users did not exhibit any difference with respect to sex steroids and HOMA-IR levels.”

Raloxifene increased serum testosterone but reduced serum IGF-1 in a study performed by Duschek et al.

In aging men serum levels of testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) decline, potential factors in the reduced muscle strength, abdominal obesity, sexual dysfunction and impaired general well being of aging. The partial oestrogen agonist and antagonist raloxifene increase serum testosterone levels in aging men, but the effect of raloxifene on serum IGF-1 levels in men is unknown. In this study the effects of raloxifene on IGF-1 levels and the associated increase in serum testosterone were compared to the effects of oral testosterone supplementation

Side Effects

Common side effects of Evista include:
● hot flashes,
● increased sweating,
● headache,
● dizziness,
● spinning sensation,
● leg cramps or leg pain,
● joint pain,
● nausea,

More information

Raloxifene is not an estrogen hormone, but it acts like estrogen in some parts of the body, like your bones. In other parts of the body (uterus and breasts), raloxifene acts like an estrogen blocker. It does not relieve menopause symptoms such as hot flashes. Raloxifene belongs to a class of drugs known as selective estrogen receptor modulators-SERMs.

Dosages

60 mg orally per day

Conclusion

Raloxifene has been shown to increase bone mineral density of the hip in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer. Moreover, experimental data demonstrated dramatic increase in cell death in human prostate cancer cell lines after the treatment with raloxifene. All these observations suggest that SERMs may be useful for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis not only in postmenopausal women but also in elderly men. However, our hypothesis should be tested in a proper designed clinical trial

User reviews

Review 1
2 weeks into Raloxifene still waiting for the results.

Review 2
Excellent product

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